Poetry analysis of Paul Muldoon’s poem ‘Why Brownlee Left’

Why Brownlee Left

Why Brownlee left, and where he went,
Is a mystery even now.
For if a man should have been content
It was him; two acres of barley,
One of potatoes, four bullocks,
A milker, a slated farmhouse.
He was last seen going out to plough
On a March morning, bright and early.

By noon Brownlee was famous;
They had found all abandoned, with
The last rig unbroken, his pair of black
Horses, like man and wife,
Shifting their weight from foot to
Foot, and gazing into the future.

Paul Muldoon‘s poem ‘Why Brownlee Left‘ (1980), is a enigmatic narrative about an Irish farmer who abandoned his farm lock stock and barrel and was never seen or heard from again. The title sets the tone for what follows, but it is rhetorical as there is no answer or explanation given for the farmer’s disappearance.

To convey the mystery, Muldoon utilises figurative techniques like the simile of comparing Brownlee’s “horses, like man and wife” in an effort to offer a possible personal motivation as to why Brownlee left his farm. But the poem is more than just a enigma about the disappearance of this seemingly content and prosperous farmer, but it is also allegorical and suggestive of Brownlee’s need “to break free from a prescribed future” – his programmed and daily banal existence of farming life (Muri 1995, p. 44).

Muldoon seems to use Brownlee’s abrupt departure to carry a deeper undercurrent that reflects Muldoon’s own “aimless travels”, where there is “no reassuring resolution” – a sentiment that is also present in the similar Irish poem “Immram” that records a hero’s sea journey to the Otherworld (1995, p. 44).

The tone of uncertainty that flows through ‘Why Brownlee Left’ is given greater emphasis by the uneven line breaks in the second stanza, and the sad imagery of Brownlee’s abandoned and wistful horses who gaze into an uncertain future.

When I read this poem I felt that Muldoon used this folk enigma to explore our deep human need to understand our destiny, whether it is to be found in the everyday or in the extraordinary.



Allison Muri 1995, ‘A Pilgrim’s Progress: Paul Muldoon’s “Immram” as a Journey of Discovery.’
The Canadian Journal of Irish Studies, Vol. 21, No. 2. pp. 44-51, viewed 24 December, 2013.

BBC Northern Ireland Learning, ‘Why Brownlee Left’, viewed 24 December, 2013.





Seven Creative Ideas For Writing a Poem

Writing a poem, like a short story, can sometimes be a challenge. We can sit at the computer or with a blank sheet of paper in front of us and feel that we are fresh out of ideas. But never underestimate the creative mind. Just when you feel that you have drained the creative pool dry, an unusual idea can pop into our consciousness, and then we are off and running with an intriguing story or an inspiring poem. But if you feel that your creative muse has left the building and ideas have been a little stale lately, here are another seven creative ideas for writing a poem that will help you on your poetry journey.

Begin a poem with a serious predicament. It could involve people, animals, the law, or a combination of things. Try to resolve the situation in no more than 10 lines.

Write a poem of rage or protest. It could be based on how you really feel about something or someone, or it could be complete fiction. Let your emotions flow through the poem.

Make a list of four or five everyday objects. It could be a shell you have found on a beach, a feather, an iPhone. Give each of these objects emotional qualities. Describe them as if they were alive, and had feelings.

Write a poem in the form of a letter. It can be rhymed or in free verse. It can be to someone you know, or a stranger. Or write a letter to yourself.

Write a poem about an experience from the past that includes the following:
person, animal, location, object. Allow each of these to inform the poem in ways that are both physical and emotional.

Poems are like lyrical accidents just waiting to happen. You could be at home listening to music, watching television, out shopping or walking in the park. A poem can be inspired by almost anything. Start with whatever comes to mind, and develop the poem from that spontaneous place.

Write a poem in the voice of another – like a monologue.

There are no hard and fast rules about writing poetry, but sometimes trying something a little bit different like these seven creative writing ideas for writing a poem can help you to push past any blockages to your creativity. 

Happy Writing!



Poetry. Oldiefan.


How to Write a Dynamic Poem

This week’s blog is about how to write a poem that will engage your reader. Poetry is such a fascinating and multifaceted aspect of creative writing; it is an expression of life coupled with the imagination.  Writing poetry can be as simple as a few well-placed words that rhyme or it can be a complex arrangement of lines, stanzas, and rhyming patterns.

Poetry opens up an unlimited world of creative possibilities, and once you have a good understanding of the wide range of techniques and styles available, you can craft your own unique expression of life.

An Overview of Poetry.

The history of poetry is as complex as the art form itself, and there have been many debates over the centuries over what constitutes a poem. The origins of poetry stem back to oral tradition, where a poem was used primarily for didactic and entertainment purposes in the form of a ballad. Shakespeare made the Sonnet famous – a poetic form that fuses together a delicate balance of both narrative and lyrical qualities. With the arrival of the printing press and the book, poetry became a highly respected literary style.

What Constitutes a Poem?

Is a poem just a static literary form that must adhere to a particular rhyming pattern, a specific use of language and a rigid structural format?

The traditionalist would argue that a poem should adhere to a strict rhyming pattern and its appearance on the page must not divert from four-lined stanzas that run down the page.

The rebellious modernist would argue that rules are meant to be broken and writing a poem is a free and unfettered craft that is subject only to the artistic whim of the poet.

I think the answer to what constitutes a poem lies in this statement: a poem is the perfect form of creative expression. What is your view?  Does a poem allow a writer to express their feelings, thoughts, and experiences of the world better than a short story?

The 19th-century classical poet and critic Mathew Arnold defined a poem as the ‘most beautiful, impressive, and most widely effective mode of saying things, and hence its importance….’ (Knickerbocker 1925, p. 446). But as grand as this quote sounds, the art of writing a poem is so much more.

Poetry teaches us about the beauty and power of language and the richness of the written word. By using a combination of the available poetic techniques, a writer can find complete freedom in the expression of thoughts, ideas, and feelings.

John Redmond defines a poem as not so much a structure of words, which has to conform to a set of rules and a particular form, but an experiment with being, that has a personality and value of its own; and “…any good poem should make us feel like explorers of a new planet, setting out on a momentous adventure… [a] good poem will try to maintain the openness, the sense of possibility, which every reader feels when they open a book for the first time”(2006, p. 2).

To maintain the openness and the sense of possibility, the poet needs to keep the reader in mind when they are writing a poem, by using language and images that the reader can engage with and therefore feel that they can join the poet in the journey of exploration.

A poem enables the poet to reveal their thoughts or life experiences to the reader through a heightened use of language that appeals to the emotions. It is an invitation from the poet to the reader to undertake a journey of the exploration of ideas. Overall, the poet designs their perfect form of creative expression to engage their reader and to provoke a response.

Here are seven techniques or tools that can help you write a poem that will engage your reader:

You have access to a toolbox that is full of different techniques or poetic devices that will allow you to aptly convey your thoughts, feelings, and experiences of the world such as:

One. Sound. An arrangement of sound (a clever combination of alliteration and assonance – the repetition of consonant and vowel sounds), which creates an internal rhyme and evoke music in our mind when we read the poem out loud. Assonance can create an internal rhyme like this line of poetry by Theodore Roethke “I wake to sleep, and take my waking slow…” 

Two.  Enjambment. Enjambment is strategic line breaks that determine meter and rhythm, which can highlight a certain phrase or idea.

Three. Imagery. Imagery allows us to draw upon vivid description to create a word picture.  You can use concrete images, which are images that we can see or feel like the sun or rain, a cat, or a house. Abstract images denote things or concepts we understand but we cannot see or feel like love, freedom or justice. 

Four. Metaphor and Simile. These two figures of speech reveal hidden similarities and compare two ideas for poetic effect.

Five. Rhyme. Rhyme relates to words or lines that end in identical sounds. “Whose woods these are I think I know. His house is in the village, though…” Robert Frost. 

Six. Tone. Tone is a particular use of voice that evokes a certain type of feeling or emotion like melancholy, happy, pensive, sad or angry, which is determined by specific word choice. This is an excerpt from Departure by Edna St. Vincent Millay, which shows a melancholy tone of voice.

I wish I could walk till my blood should spout, 
And drop me, never to stir again, 
On a shore that is wide, for the tide is out, 
And the weedy rocks are bare to the rain.

But dump or dock, where the path I take 
Brings up, it’s little enough I care, 
And it’s little I’d mind the fuss they’ll make, 
Huddled dead in a ditch somewhere.  

Source: Poetry Foundation. 

Seven. Poetry Styles. Explore the many poetry styles available. A poem is a  such a vibrant and versatile art form. There are many composition styles available – Free verse (which does not conform to traditional rhyming stanzas that contain a regular meter or rhythm), or an Elegy that can be used just as a poem or a song that portrays sadness.  

These seven techniques are just a few tools that the poet can access in their toolbox and some of these techniques can be used in writing stories, but they specifically belong to the world of poetry. 

Ultimately, the role of a poem not only serves the purpose of self-expression, but it can teach us something new, and also capture our imaginations and emotions.

If you would like more resources on poetry styles and authors go to the Resources page and click on the link for the Australian Poetry Library and the Poetry Foundation. Or you can have a read of some of my own poetry.


NEXT WEEK: Exploring Poetry Styles.



Knickerbocker, William S 1925. “Matthew Arnold’s Theory of Poetry”. The Sewanee Review 33 (4). Johns Hopkins University Press: 440–50, via Jstor. 

Redmond, John 2006, How to write a poem, Blackwell Publishing, USA. p. 2.



Poetry. Gadini.